The kidney is a paired, bean-shaped organ responsible for excretion. Its function is to remove metabolic breakdown products, filter and purify the blood, and regulate the body’s water balance.
Kidney stones form in the urinary tract and drainage organs when the balance between fluid and solutes is upset.
Initially, only tiny crystals are form, which are stacked in several layers, and if they do not leave the urinary system for a long time, they turn into stones, which in most cases are yellow or brown.
The most common symptoms are sharp, stabbing, or cramping pain, back pain, bloody urine, nausea/vomiting, and bloating.
Genetic predisposition, inadequate fluid intake, one-sided diet, sedentary lifestyle, urinary tract infection, and urinary retention may all underlie kidney stone formation.
In addition to the presence of known symptoms, abdominal ultrasound, CT urography, and laboratory examination of renal function are of great importance in making the diagnosis.
Types of kidney stones
More than twenty types of kidney stones (calcium stone, oxalate stone, uric acid stone, cystine stone, struvite stone, etc.) are known. The main component is predominantly calcium oxalate, to a lesser extent, calcium phosphate. Yellow or brown stones can range in size from sand grains to fist-sized. An individualized dietary recommendation tailored to the type of stone can be made after a urine test and stone analysis.