Rectal polyp surgery, rectal polyp removal
What is a rectal polyp and what are its symptoms?
A rectal polyp is a tissue growth that originates from the wall of the rectum and is vaulted into it. This can be benign or malicious.
Most polyp are asymptomatic. The most common complaint is rectal bleeding, which is usually hidden and rarely occurs in a big amount.
Sometimes a polyp with a long stem protrudes through the anus. Large fluffy adenomas rarely cause diarrhoea, which can lead to hypokalaemia (decreased blood potassium levels).
Why is it necessary to remove the rectal polyps?
Regular screening of colonic or rectal polyps by a proctologist is the best way to prevent the polyps from progressing to colon cancer. Most polyps can be identified and removed during colonoscopy.
How is the procedure performed?
Most benign colonic and rectal polyps are small to medium in size and can be removed with a colonoscope. In case of small polyps, a small piece of the rectal mucosa is removed with pliers.
Larger polyps are most often removed with a metal loop passed through a thin, insulated hollow plastic tube.
Routine preoperative blood and urine tests are performed before the procedure. The patient also receives a medicated enema to clear the bowel.
What are the advantages and risks of rectal polyp surgery?
If colectomy is recommended for a benign or non-cancerous growth, it is usually because the growth produces some symptoms (bleeding or blockage), or to prevent the cancer from developing.
Complications are very rare, but there is a small risk of colonic perforation (less than 1 in 1 000 cases) and a risk of severe bleeding due to damage to the intestinal wall (less than 3 in 1 000 cases). Polyp removal may be accompanied by minor bleeding.
Am I fit for rectal polyp removal?
Not all patients are suitable for laparoscopic polypectomy; it depends on the type of disease affecting the patient. Several other factors are also considered, including the patient’s physique and general health, previous abdominal surgeries causing scar tissue, previous bleeding disorders, and pregnancy.
How do I prepare for surgery?
Be aware of restrictions prescribed by your doctor, such as not being able to eat solid food the day before surgery. Make a list of all the medications, vitamins, and supplements you are taking.
Please keep us informed of the most important medical information, including other illnesses and important personal information such as recent changes in your life or the effects of stress.
All of our patients are asked to complete a detailed medical history form, which is necessary for our surgeons and physicians to decide if you are suitable for surgery.
What should I do after rectal polyp surgery?
You should spend some time in a room to convalesce until the analgesic effect is gone. You will not be alert enough to go home immediately after the procedure, so it is recommended that you spend one night in Medicover hospital. Rest for the rest of the day and eat little at first. Minor symptoms such as gas or bloating disappear within 24 hours.
Why are regular follow-up examinations after rectal polyp surgery important?
Follow-up examinations depend on the type of the polyp. Small hyperplastic polyps in the lower part of the colon usually do not require follow-up, and repetition of colonoscopy is recommended after 10 years if there are no additional factors (polyp or colon cancer in personal or family history, etc.)