The outer, middle, and inner ears are the sensory organs of hearing and balance. The outer ear includes the auricle, the external acoustic meatus, and the earlobe. At the end of the outer ear is the eardrum. In the middle ear, the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) transmit the vibrations of the air to the cochlea. In the Corti-organ, which is located in the fluid-filled cochlea, the vibrations turn into stimuli. The nerve signals to the auditory centre of the brain are transmitted from here to the auditory nerve. From here, the nerve signals are transmitted to the auditory centre of the brain by the auditory nerve.
In terms of operation, we distinguish between a sound-transmitting and a sound-receiving system. The auricle, ear canal, eardrum, auditory ossicles, and labyrinth fluids belong to the sound transmitting system, while the section from the stimuli receiving hair cells of the Corti organ to the cerebral cortex belongs to the sound-receiving apparatus.
In human hearing, the outer, as well as the middle ear picks up and transmits sounds, which the inner ear converts into neural signals that are transmitted by the auditory nerve. Pre-processing and filtering then begin, followed by detection.