As a first step in a proctology practice, the specialist asks the patient about the symptoms: what exactly they have experienced, how long the complaints have been persisting, how often they occur. The proctologist then asks questions about the patient’s eating and lifestyle habits and what illnesses have occurred in the family.
This is followed by an external physical examination and, if necessary, an instrumental examination: anoscopy or rectoscopy.
Anoscopy is a device examination to examine the anus as well as the lower 3-4 cm section of the rectum. After the insertion of the anoscope, the proctologist examines the condition of the epithelium and mucous membranes covering the rectum, as well as possible diseases of the anus: internal haemorrhoids, rupture of the rectum, inflammation of the rectal mucosa and tumours of the last section. The advantage of the examination is that the internal haemorrhoid causing the complaint can be treated simultaneously through the thin tube with special devices, but it is also possible to take a tissue sample with a small pliers. The examination is usually painless, however, if it is performed to look for haemorrhoids or rupture of the rectum, burning, stabbing pain may occur during insertion of the device.
For the treatment of internal haemorrhoids, we also perform anoscopic haemorrhage ringing in our clinics in the framework of outpatient care, during which a rubber ring clamping is placed on the internal haemorrhoids with special devices developed for this purpose. With one treatment, only 1-2 rings can be put on, so recovery is expected after several interventions. Regular, loose stools and the avoidance of excessive physical exertion are recommended after treatments.
Depending on the complaints, the examination is often supplemented by rectoscopy to make an accurate diagnosis. During rectoscopy, the last 10-20 cm section of the colon is examined by a proctologist by inserting a special instrument. The test is performed for diagnostic purposes, with the help of which benign (polyps) and malignant lesions of the rectum, as well as inflammation, ulcers and stenoses can be detected in time. Sampling (biopsy) and removal of polyps are also possible during rectoscopy. The test only takes 1-2 minutes, can be uncomfortable, but does not cause pain.
If the above-mentioned examinations are not sufficient, either colonoscopy, X-ray or biopsies may be required, which are carried out during a separate consultation