Why is laboratory testing important?
Laboratory tests can help identify or, where appropriate, rule out the underlying diseases.
However, it is important to highlight that the result of a laboratory test does not in itself constitute a diagnosis, only the results are included in the finding. You will receive the diagnosis, therapy or treatment recommendation from your specialist or treating physician who ordered the laboratory tests.
Contact your doctor with all laboratory test results.
Tumour types and their markers
|Tumour marker||Full name||Oncology field|
|AFP||Alfa-foetoprotein||Liver and egg cell tumours|
|CA 125||Cancer antigen 125||Ovary tumour|
|CA 19-9||Cancer antigen 19-9||Pancreatic tumour|
|CA 15-3||Cancer antigen 15-3||In case of breast cancer|
|CEA||Carcinoembryonic antigen||Digestive organ tumours|
|PSA||Prostate antigen||Prostate cancer|
|PSA free||Prostate-specific antigen||Prostate cancer|
|Septin 9||Septin-9||Colon cancer|
|Bone trap 5B||Bone trap 5B||Bone tumour, bone metastasis|
|Cyfra-21||Cyfra-21||Not small cell lung cancer|
|TPA||Tissue polipeptid antigene||Possible tumour marker: breast, lung, bladder and ovarian cancer|
Tumour markers are produced by tumour cells. The laboratory can detect these substances from body secretions: blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, faeces. Tests make sense if there are any complaints or symptoms that raise the possibility of a tumour. If the tumour marker test is performed before the tumour therapy, the tracking of the parameter is suitable for monitoring the effectiveness of the therapy and for indicating the recurrence of the tumour.
A negative test result (the tumour marker concentration is in the normal range) does not necessarily indicate a tumour-free condition, as a positive result does not necessarily indicate cancer. In a positive case, further tests can be used to determine if there is indeed a cancerous lesion. Among other things, one of the most common types of cancer, colon cancer, can be screened for with laboratory testing of blood and stool samples.
Please note that the tests performed do not give a diagnosis, it is the responsibility of your doctor to evaluate the results and establish the diagnosis.
Septin 9 test
With this highly sensitive diagnostic test, colon cancer can be detected at an early stage. Colon cancer detected at an early stage during regular screening has a very good chance of being cured. Early detection of colon cancer has a 91% chance of recovery, compared with a late, advanced condition where the recovery rate is only 11%.
Since the disease is recognized at an early stage in barely a third of cases in the absence of characteristic symptoms, this screening test with a simple blood sample may be particularly useful for early diagnosis. The colon tumour can be detected in a blood sample of Septin9 methylated DNA produced by abnormal cells. The test is suitable for detecting colon cancer of any location and stage.
The Septin9 test is recommended for patients at increased risk of colon cancer who have a family history of such disease and who have had inflammatory bowel disease for many years.
Since the test can be performed on a blood sample, it allows for a more gentle diagnosis than colonoscopy.
Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M)
Bone trap 5B (bone tumor marker)
CA-125 (ovary tumor marker)
CA 15-3 (breast tumor marker)
CA 19-9 (pancreatic tumor marker)
CEA (gastrointestinal tumor marker)
Chromogranin A (CgA)
Cyfra-21 (lungs tumor marker)
HE-4 (ROMA index)
PSA (prostate tumor marker)
Septin 9 (colon tumor marker, temporarily unavailable)
Fecal M2-PK + Fecal Occult Blood Test (rectal tumor marker)
TPA (tissue polipeptid antigene, breast, lungs, bladder, ovary tumor marker)