Laboratory testing of infectious diseases
In the course of laboratory examination of infectious diseases, antibodies of infectious pathogens are detected in blood.
What items are included in the laboratory examination of infectious diseases?
The virus that causes AIDS destroys the body’s defence system: it infects immune cells, blocks their function, making the human body vulnerable to infections.
Thus, up to 10 billion viruses can be formed in an infected body every day, causing the death of immune cells until the immune system is completely weakened. The disease is spread primarily through sexual transmission through infected genital secretions but can also be transmitted through infected blood. The latter occurs through the joint use of needles and syringes by drug users.
The presence of HIV antibodies in the body indicates infection.
Hepatitis B surface antigen occurs after Hepatitis B virus infection, a few weeks before the appearance of clinical symptoms. If the test shows its presence in the body, it indicates infection or infectivity.
The antibody appears after the course of hepatitis B infection or vaccination. If the patient develops adequate protection, only the anti-HBs antibody can be detected in the test, while the other markers are negative.
The anti-HBc antibody is formed as a result of an immune response against Hepatitis B virus infection. It can be detected in both acute, chronic and cured infections. After infection, the antibody is present in the body for life.
Hepatitis A antibody
The test is needed to diagnose hepatitis A virus infection. To perform the test is also reasonable if the need for vaccination against hepatitis A virus needs to be established or the body’s response to vaccination needs to be monitored.
Treponema serology (RPR + Elisa)
Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of a sexually transmitted disease, syphilis. Syphilis (lues or French disease) is spread through sexual contact, but can also be transmitted directly by blood.
It does not prevent childbirth, but in case of an infected mother, the child is also born infected due to contact with the birth canal. Without treatment, the disease occurs at different stages, each of which presents with characteristic skin symptoms.
The RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin) assay detects IgG and IgM antibodies released against lipoid material from damaged cells and lipoid-like material released from spirochaetes. These antibodies are present 4-6 weeks after infection, then disappear from the serum after successful treatment of the infection.
The ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test is a laboratory method for detecting antibodies of a virus and a bacterium, or a specific antibody against a particular virus. Thus, the test does not detect the pathogen itself, but determines the activity of the enzyme associated with the antigen or antibody, therefore providing a point of reference to the amount of antibodies produced.
This procedure is perhaps most important in detecting the HIV virus, i.e. proving AIDS seropositivity.
Hepatitis C antibody
The test shows the presence of antibodies produced as an immune response to HCV infection. Given that the test is not able to distinguish between active and previous infections, if the test is positive, other tests are needed to confirm the presence of infection.
Herpes simplex 1 and 2
Herpes simplex is a very common infection that affects almost the entire population. HSV-1 (Herpes simplex labialis) and HSV-2 (Herpes simplex genitalis) viruses can all cause symptoms on the lips, oral cavity, and genitals, but HSV-2 recurs more often. Most carriers are clinically asymptomatic. The infection is spread through skin contact, mucous membranes and body excretion.
How do I prepare for the test?
Having an empty stomach is not required for the laboratory testing of infectious diseases.
When is the result expected?
9-14 working days after the test.