Pre-operative laboratory tests are needed to assess the patient’s general health condition and identify the risk factors, allowing the anesthesiologist to choose the most appropriate anesthesia during surgery, and to help identify factors that may complicate surgery.
Anesthesia is a condition in which perception is partially or completely blocked, the nervous system is not processing stimuli from the environment. Anesthesia can be general (covering the whole body), regional (affecting one part of the body), or local (only on the treated part).
General anesthesia is usually performed under anesthesia, when the patient is asleep, or by intoxication. It can be applied by inhalation, where anesthetics are inhaled with a carrier gas, intravenously, when the deactivation of the nervous system is achieved by drugs, administered to the collecting vessel, or with the combination of these two methods.
Regional anesthesia prevents the stimulus from reaching the central nervous system, which is performed with local anesthetics. Local anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and spinal anesthesia are all regional methods.
Because the loss of consciousness and perception is always achieved by medication, it is important for the anesthesiologist to be aware of all risk factors (sensitivity, deficiency) prior to anesthesia, that can be detected by a preoperative laboratory test.