The nephrologist examines the functional abnormalities of the kidney (selective function).
The kidney is a pair of bean-shaped organs located at the back, at about waist height, on either side of the spine. They measure 12 cm x 4 cm and weigh approx. 140 grams.
The kidneys of a healthy adult are smooth and bright brown in colour. It is surrounded on the outside by a three-layer connective tissue case. Below the outer cortex is the medulla. The filtered urine enters the renal pelvis from the collecting ducts and is then excreted from the body through the ureter, bladder, and urethra.
The kidney, according to its main functions, cleanses the blood, starts the production of red blood cells, selects the breakdown products, discharges toxins, produces hormones, and ensures the balance of fluid and mineral household.