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PSA laboratory test

PSA is a prostate-specific antigen (protein), which is produced by the glands of the prostate. Most of it is excreted in the semen, but a small amount also enters the bloodstream. PSA levels can vary even in healthy men and can depend on age. An annual PSA level measurement will give your doctor adequate information about how pathognomic the values ​​are.

What is the purpose of the test?

The test plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis of prostate cancer in both asymptomatic and symptomatic men and helps determine the need for histological examination (prostate biopsy). Additionally, it helps determine the effectiveness of prostate cancer treatment and is an effective aid in detecting tumour recurrence.

In which cases is it recommended to perform the test?

The test should be performed if the patient’s symptoms – frequent, painful urination – indicate prostate cancer. A test is also recommended to monitor the treatment of prostate cancer. From the age of 45, men have an increased risk of prostate enlargement and tumour development. In most cases, they are asymptomatic in the early stages of prostate cancer, which is why it is especially important to perform the examination at regular intervals (with an annual frequency) over the age of 45 years.

Hematológiai és véralvadási vizsgálatok

What sample is needed for the test?

A blood sample taken from a vein is required to perform the test. Sampling can be done before or a few weeks after a prostate examination through the rectum, and a biopsy (a tissue sample taken from the prostate).

It is important that the patient does not ejaculate during the 24 hours prior to sampling, as this may result in an increase in PSA levels.

What can the result indicate?

PSA levels in prostate disease can be a multiple of normal values and not just in case of cancerous diseases.

Given that PSA levels can be influenced by a number of factors (variation can also occur in healthy men, depending on age), annual PSA level measurements can properly contribute to accurate and effective evaluation.

What to do after the test?

A PSA test alone is not yet sufficient to make a diagnosis, as in most cases other, additional tests are needed. In case of prostate cancer, the level of PSA in the blood is significantly increased, but this can also be observed in other non-cancerous diseases of the prostate, therefore the exact diagnosis can be made only depending on the result of the histological examination.

In all cases, please consult the specialist or urologist who ordered the test with the result.

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